In sales training, vicarious learning approaches such as direct observation, role-playing,  and videotaping of sales presentations are recognized as more efficient than self-learning  by direct selling experiences. Recent evidence indicates that vicarious learning may be  the most effective way of learning. Complex skills, particularly social skills like selling,  are more completely and accurately learned when cognitive prework and feedback are included. Effective selling can be modeled in cognitive scripts and then transferred to novice or less effective salespeople by incorporating the scripts into vicarious sales training experiences. These scripts are cognitive structures concerning how to sell. They can be brought to life through modeling and role-playing and may be used to transfer both canned (relying on concrete script descriptions, descriptive codes, role-playing, and highly descriptive feedback) and adaptive (based on learning rule-oriented codes, cognitive rehearsal, and multiple modeling experiences emphasizing a general selling theme) selling skills.

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