Recent studies have reflected the need to investigate the development of market orientation in the transitional economies under conditions of economic decline and great systemic change. However, the relationship between the level of market orientation and firm’s competitiveness in a turbulent environment has not been analyzed. Personal interviews conducted with 221 managers of Ukrainian enterprises provided data to investigate the level of the development of market orientation and competitiveness. Managers’ attitudes toward marketing are used to create a typology of marketing approaches in the Ukraine. Competitiveness is measured as a multi-dimensional concept using variables of organisational adaptability to the changes in business environment, advantages across the marketing mix and performance indicators as the dimensions. The results of the study suggest that the level of a firm’s competitiveness in the turbulent environment of a transitional economy is associated with the level of the development of market orientation.